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Tuesday, December 27, 2011

Pembangunan Profesional Guru



Hawley & Valli (2007) summarizes a rather large body of research and expert opinion on the effectiveness of professional development in the form of 10 “design principles.” These principles can be used to develop a comprehensive approach to professional development for teachers and administrators or to evaluate existing programs and specific practices.

They call these design principles “learner centered” for two reasons: first, because professional development should be driven by the needs of students and by what teachers need to know and be able to do to address specific learning needs of their students. Second, professional development should reflect what we know about how people learn. This means that the content and delivery of professional development should address learners’ beliefs and prior knowledge, motivation, capacity for strategic processing, individual differences, and situation or context.

Principle 1: Professional development should be based on collaborative analyses of the differences between (a) actual student performance and (b) goals and standards for student learning

Principle 2: Professional development should be primarily school based and built into the day-to-day work of teaching.

Principle 3: Professional development should involve teachers in the identification of what they need to learn and in the development of the learning experiences in which they will be involved.

Principle 4: The content should reflect the best research on the given topic (e.g., how to enhance the literacy of adolescents).

Principle 5: The content of professional development should focus on what students are to learn and how to address the different problems students may have in learning that material.

Principle 6: Professional development should provide experiential opportunities to gain an understanding of and reflect on the research and theory underlying the knowledge and skills being learned.

Principle 7: The way teacher learning is facilitated should mirror the instructional approaches they are expected to master and allow teachers to experience the consequences of newly learned capabilities.

Principle 8: Professional development should be continuous and ongoing, involving follow-up and support for further learning, including support from sources external to the school that can provide necessary resources and new perspectives.

Principle 9: Professional development should be connected to a comprehensive change process focused on specific goals for improving student learning.

Principle 10: Evaluation of professional development should incorporate multiple sources of information on (a) outcomes for students and (b) the instruction and other processes that are involved in implementing the lessons learned.

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